A Handbook of Egyptian Religion - For Kindle 1

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In , I decided to move to Granada for a year, using Spotahome. This is my story. Photo Credit: Zalaikha Williams.

Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt

The Egyptians knew how to write many centuries before them, they even made use of letters each of which expressed its own sound, as in our alphabet. Everywhere has been left a fertile, alluvial bed which serves the purpose of fertilization. The Two Babylons Kindle Locations Berkeley: University of California Press; This list is primarily, but by no means exclusively, for beginners with little or no familiarity with ancient Egyptian mythology and religion.

You have to explore it on your own. Granada is a magical and inspiring city. It made me an artistic person and I became more active and outgoing, thanks to the friendly Spanish culture. My biggest advice is to not hang out with the rest of the Americans — talk to the locals, even if it means you will have to do a charade or two. If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support?

I considered it advisable to present this sketch of Egyptian Religion as it appears to an nu prejudiced observer, who knows nothing of the theories of the modern science of religions; the reader will here find nothing of animism, or fetishism,' of chthonic deities, nor yet of medicine men. The facts should first be established and without prejudice, before we attempt to fit them into a scientific system.

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No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. When dealing with issues regarding death, however, many Hindus are uncomfortable with medical determinations of death [ 74 ].

Although India passed a resolution in that included provisions accepting brain death criteria, and several sources state that Hindus accept neurological criteria [ 75 ], internet and library searches turn up few discussions of the issues surrounding medical definitions of death. Instead discourse on death typically focuses on what constitutes a good or bad death in religious and next life terms.

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A good death, essential for both the dying person and the family, occurs when the individual is properly prepared to die, the astrological signs are right, and the proper rituals are performed. Experiencing either liberation or a good rebirth requires a good death. A bad death will have permanent ramifications in subsequent lives; the deceased may be reborn in a lesser station or wander unable to be reborn but not liberated. There will be unfortunate consequences for the family—e.

Sudden death, death with excessive bodily fluids, or a death accompanied by poorly performed rituals constitutes bad death [ 76 ], p. The place of death also matters. Dying in the holy city of Benares near the Ganges is preferred, but if that is not possible individuals will be lowered to the floor to avoid the area between the ceiling and floor which is filled with turmoil.

The focus of the individual must remain on a religious thought [ 77 ], p. Some people chant the name of their deity, others chant passages from the Bhagavad Gita , and family members place a light near the head of their loved one. Interrupting this process can have consequences that will continue eternally since it will affect all future births. Most people do not die in hospital in India; rather they are sent home when death approaches [ 79 ], p In a study of Hindu immigrants to North America, Kyoko Murato outlines the adaptations the community has made to death rituals.

In North America, people do die in hospitals and the Hindu community has adjusted to that. Murato also notes that in urban areas in India, there are gradual changes in practice [ 79 ], p Water from the Ganges is brought to the hospital room and the practice of moving the patient to the floor is abandoned. Hindu concern for both interfering with the timing of death and allowing the individual to focus correctly shows itself directly in attitudes toward suspending treatment, especially mechanical means of life support. Twentieth century saint and spiritual master, Sivaya Subramuniysawami Gurudeva — notes:.

To prolong life in the debilitated physical body past the point that the natural will of the person has sustained is to incarcerate, to jail, to place that person in prison. The prison is the hospital. The guards are the life-support machines and the tranquilizing drugs [ 80 ]. This attitude is shared by Hindu people living in India and those who have migrated to new lands; families will attempt to avoid artificial life support or terminate it as soon as its futility is evident.

Moreover, suspending artificial nutrition and hydration is sometimes supported because there will be fewer bodily fluids and the soul can more easily leave the body.

Founded in the 6th century b. It quickly became popular, moved throughout Asia and was able to meld itself to the pre-existing cultures of the locations in which it found itself. For example, Buddhism is practiced alongside indigenous traditions, such as feng-shui in China and Shinto in Japan, and earlier formal religious and philosophical systems, Confucianism and Taoism. Like Hinduism, Buddhism believes in the cycle of death and rebirth, samsara ,and proffers a way to liberation, Nirvana. There are two main types of Buddhism, Theravada and Mahayana ; there are only slight variations between these two groups on the issues of determining death.

Lay people will rely on monks and nuns for guidance in making moral decisions, but they are not obligated to follow their advice. In Buddhism, death is distinguished from life by the absence of three things, vitality, heat and consciousness. Two western Buddhist scholars, one traditional physician-monk from Thailand, and the president of the lay Buddhist group, Soka Gakkai International, are the only Buddhists who have argued publically that brain death criteria are consistent with the Buddhist understanding of death.

Scholar Damien Keown, saw the category of vitality and heat corresponding to bodily metabolic processes that generate heat and claimed that Buddhist texts support the idea that the brain is the source of integrating consciousness. Keown has, however, recently changed his view and now agrees with most of Buddhism that the loss of bodily heat is the only reliable indicator of death [ 3 ], p. Adherents to Pure Land Buddhism of China and Japan believe this happens over a period of twelve to twenty-four hours.

Disrupting the body prior to actual death will interfere with rebirth or attaining release from samsara. A brief look at Buddhism in several locations illustrates how these general features operate and how they merge with other religions. Buddhism arrived in China in the first century c. Pure Land Buddhism is the most popular form of Buddhism in China; adherents are devoted to a Buddha called, Amitabha, who presides over a heavenly place called the Pure Land.

People who believe in him pray to him and meditate on him so that they will join him in his paradise when they die. The Pure Land is a desirable spot described as a fragrant paradise with hundreds of thousands of colors.

It is filled with precious things. When people arrive, they can do whatever they want [ 83 ]. From indigenous roots China takes reluctance to discuss death and veneration of ancestors. From Confucianism it takes proper practices and filial piety, and from Taoism, a focus on Nature, prolonging life and the idea of life force that pervades the universe. To ensure the passage from death to the status of ancestor, complex rituals are required and begin immediately when the life force is gone.

Failure to perform appropriate rituals will affect the deceased and the family [ 86 ], p.

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Death occurs when the life force Chi leaves the body. Chi , a concept in both Taoism and Chan Buddhism, is not located in any one organ but is physically diffused throughout the body. Neurological criteria for determining death are not easily reconciled with the idea of chi.

Although death practices are changing in China, the idea of a good death occurring at home, in the main hall in the presence of ancestor tablets is still cherished. Proper place of death helps the deceased attain the status of ancestor and ensures harmony [ 86 ], p. Pure Land Buddhism is layered onto and practiced alongside these ideas. Dying at home is preferred. To ensure a good death, the dying person focuses on Amitabha by chanting, Amituofo.

Pure Land Buddhists believe the subtle body leaves the body over a twelve to twenty-four hour time period after respiration ceases. During this time the patient can still feel pain and sadness [ 86 ]. Specific rituals will assist the deceased in a safe arrival in the Pure Land.

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If the process of dying is interrupted, the newly deceased person, ancestors already in the Pure Land, and the current family will suffer. Pure Land adherents prefer not to start artificial means of life support but treatment may be withdrawn if the family feels its obligations to the individual have been met.

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Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism migrated to Japan and became part of the Japanese religious landscape which also includes the indigenous Japanese religion, Shinto, the way of the Gods. Widely practiced, Shinto is an optimistic religion that focuses on life, purity, and seasonal rituals [ 90 ]. Reverence for nature and what is natural are hallmarks of Shinto. Death is a source of impurity in the Shinto tradition; there are no Shinto funerals or cemeteries. Shinto priests will use the rituals of Buddhism or Taoism when performing funeral rituals. In Japan, most people die in hospital; the medical infrastructure accommodates itself to death rituals by providing a space in the hospital where the family and hospital staff gather with the newly deceased for ritual practice.

Determining death through neurological criteria has provoked serious controversy in Japan. Helen Hardacre has written a nuanced article on Japanese Buddhist and Shinto responses to attempts to define death medically. She notes that the Buddhist principle of engi , in which the individual is always becoming, is difficult to reconcile with the death of any particular organ or a particular moment in time [ 91 ].

A Handbook Of Egyptian Religion

A complex system for understanding and negotiating the stages of dying developed from the combination of these religious traditions [ 4 ], p. The text, known in English as The Tibetan Book of the Dead, is read at the bedside of the dying to help them reach the goal of the Clear Light, a state similar to Nirvana. The dying process takes a total of forty-nine days after respiration stops [ 81 ].

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This practice can be incorporated with Pure Land practices for the less spiritually adept who may not have the expertise to enter the Clear Light but have the potential to reach an area where they can improve their chances in their next life. The first requires consultation with a lama who through divination or meditative processes determines whether the subtle consciousness has left the body; the second, third, and fourth depend on empirical observations of the body and include seeing a drop of mucus on the nostrils, determining the loss of body heat, and witnessing the beginning of physical decomposition [ 4 ], p.

Tsomo recommends not beginning mechanical support at the end of life, since the discomfort it might causes would interfere with the calmness essential to a good death. Once mechanical support is started, however, Tsomo cautions that it should not be discontinued until it can be determined that the subtle consciousness has left the body through the methods mentioned above.

Over the past several centuries various forms of Buddhism have intersected with the West in a variety of ways, including Colonialism and War, but philosophical and religious interest began in earnest at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These emphasized the rational basis for Buddhist belief [ 92 ] Scholars distinguish three ways in which practitioners relate to Western Buddhism.

The first is practiced by individuals whose ancestors emigrated from areas where Buddhism was the main tradition. In addition, they draw on a wide variety of material from other faith traditions, science and philosophy.