This has led to a range of projects and partnerships that address critical issues, such as improving the sustainability and development of resource-driven economies and the creation of tools to assist corporations in the management of their environmental and social risks and opportunities.
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Ironically, this is especially true in urban educational spaces where it is particularly harmful and dehumanizing. The computer is now more understood to be a tool or assistant for the teacher and students. Ginsburg Educational socialization in Korean-American children: A longitudinal study. Brian Street, As an example, students were enrolled in the Amigos two-way elementary school bilingual program in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in Lambert and Cazabon, In contrast, in my most recent Playable Fiction module, many of my students integrated elements into their digital fictions that I still have no idea how to do, and spent no time in learning.
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Forgot password? The importance of automaticity has been demonstrated in a number of areas e. In addition to being learner centered and knowledge centered, effectively designed learning environments must also be assessment centered.
The key principles of assessment are that they should provide opportunities. It is important to distinguish between two major uses of assessment.
The first, formative assessment, involves the use of assessments usually administered in the context of the classroom as sources of feedback to improve teaching and learning. The second, summative assessment, measures what students have learned at the end of some set of learning activities. Examples of summative assessments include teacher-made tests given at the end of a unit of study and state and national achievement tests that students take at the end of a year.
Issues of summative assessment for purposes of national, state, and district accountability are beyond the scope of this volume; our discussion focuses on classroom-based formative and summative assessments. Studies of adaptive expertise, learning, transfer, and early development show that feedback is extremely important see Chapters 2 , 3 , and 4. Given the goal of learning with understanding, assessments and feedback must focus on understanding, and not only on memory for procedures or facts although these can be valuable, too.
Assessments that emphasize understanding do not necessarily require elaborate or complicated assessment procedures. Even multiple-choice tests can be organized in ways that assess understanding see below. Opportunities for feedback should occur continuously, but not intrusively, as a part of instruction. The feedback they give to students can be formal or informal. Effective teachers also help students build skills of self-assessment.
Students learn to assess their own work, as well as the work of their peers, in order to help everyone learn more effectively see, e. Such self-assessment is an important part of the metacognitive approach to instruction discussed in Chapters 3 , 4 , and 7. In many classrooms, opportunities for feedback appear to occur relatively infrequently. Most teacher feedback—grades on tests, papers,. After receiving grades, students typically move on to a new topic and work for another set of grades.
Feedback is most valuable when students have the opportunity to use it to revise their thinking as they are working on a unit or project. Opportunities to work collaboratively in groups can also increase the quality of the feedback available to students Barron, ; Bereiter and Scardamalia, ; Fuchs et al.
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New technologies provide opportunities to increase feedback by allowing students, teachers, and content experts to interact both synchronously and asynchronously see Chapter 9. Many assessments developed by teachers overly emphasize memory for procedures and facts Porter et al. In addition, many standardized tests that are used for accountability still overemphasize memory for isolated facts and procedures, yet teachers are often judged by how well their students do on such tests.
One mathematics teacher consistently produced students who scored high on statewide examinations by helping students memorize a number of mathematical procedures e. Appropriately designed assessments can help teachers realize the need to rethink their teaching practices. Even without technology, however, advances have been made in devising simple assessments that measure understanding rather than memorization. In the area of physics, assessments like those used in Chapter 2 to compare experts and novices have been revised for use in classrooms.
One task presents students with two problems and asks them to state whether both would be solved using a similar approach and state the reason for the decision:. How much work was done by friction? The ball travels on a horizontal surface and eventually rolls without slipping. Novices typically state that these two problems are solved similarly because they match on surface features—both involve a ball sliding and rolling on a horizontal surface.
Students who are learning with understanding state that the problems are solved differently: the first can be solved by applying the work-energy theorem; the second can be solved by applying conservation of angular momentum Hardiman et al. These kinds of assessment items can be used during the course of instruction to monitor the depth of conceptual understanding.
Portfolio assessments are another method of formative assessment. They take time to implement and they are often implemented poorly—portfolios often become simply another place to store student work but no discussion of the work takes place— but used properly, they provide students and others with valuable information about their learning progress over time.
A challenge for the learning sciences is to provide a theoretical framework that links assessment practices to learning theory. An important step in this direction is represented by the work of Baxter and Glaser , who. A 1-kilogram stick that is 2 meters long is placed on a frictionless surface and is free to rotate about a vertical pivot through one end. A gram lump of putty is attached 80 centimeters from the pivot. Performance on this item was near random for students finishing an introductory calculus-based physics course.
Data such as these are important for helping teachers guide students toward the development of fluid, transferable knowledge Leonard et al. In their report, performance is described in terms of the content and process task demands of the subject matter and the nature and extent of cognitive activity likely to be observed in a particular assessment situation.
The kind and quality of cognitive activities in an assessment is a function of the content and process demands of the task involved. For example, consider the content-process framework for science assessment shown in Figure 6. In this figure, task demands for content. At one extreme are knowledge-rich tasks, tasks that require in-depth understanding of subject matter for their completion.
At the other extreme are tasks that are not dependent on prior knowledge or related experiences; rather, performance is primarily dependent on the information given in the assessment situation. The task demands for process skills are conceptualized as a continuum from constrained to open x axis. In open situations, explicit directions are minimized; students are expected to generate and carry out appropriate process skills for problem solution.
In process-constrained situations, directions can be of two types: step-by-step, subject-specific procedures given as part of the task, or directions to explain the process skills that are necessary for task completion. In this situation, students are asked to generate explanations, an activity that does not require using the process skills. Assessment tasks can involve many possible combinations of content knowledge and process skills; Table 6. New developments in the science of learning suggest that the degree to which environments are community centered is also important for learning.
Especially important are norms for people learning from one another and continually attempting to improve. We use the term community centered to refer to several aspects of community, including the classroom as a commu-.
At the level of classrooms and schools, learning seems to be enhanced by social norms that value the search for understanding and allow students and teachers the freedom to make mistakes in order to learn e. Different classrooms and schools reflect different sets of norms and expectations. For example, an unwritten norm that operates in some classrooms is never to get caught making a mistake or not knowing an answer see, e. Some norms and expectations are more subject specific.
For example, the norms in a mathematics class may be that mathematics is knowing how to compute answers; a much better norm would be that the goal of inquiry is mathematical understanding. Different norms and practices have major effects on what is taught and how it is assessed e.
Sometimes there are different sets of expectations for different students. Teachers may convey expectations for school success to some students and expectations for school failure to others MacCorquodale, For example, girls are sometimes discouraged from participating in higher level mathematics and science. Students, too, may share and convey cultural expectations that proscribe the participation of girls in some classes Schofield et al.